ABOUT Symptoms

In non allergy mast cell disease,  mast cells are split easily by various mechanisms, but NOT IgE (see "Mast Cells and Triggers").

 

Mast cells release chemicals. These chemicals attach to receptors on cells, and when the chemical attaches, it sends a signal to the cell.  Imagine thousands of cells doing the same thing at the same time; this cascade of signaling causes symptoms.

 

Here are the symptoms by the chemical released.  All symptoms can occur daily or in an anaphylaxis .

if you are completely new to Mast cells -You may find the normal mast cell page useful ;-)

                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Some of us wake up one day and BAM, we have symptoms .In others symptoms get worse at a certain point but on looking back you can see times when you had smilar symptoms before . Some of us have our symptoms and conditions evolve over several years .

 

Some of us shock-Anapahylaxis and have no symptoms in between

Some of us have daily symptoms but never shock

Some of us do both

Link button

 Third Spacing

 

Histamine , PAF , leuoctrines and compliment make blood vessels porus . This is a problem.

 

In the body fluids are stored in 3 places - In the blood , Inside cells (intercellular )  and in the space between the cells (extracellular ). normally these fluids are kept in the same volumes by homeostais - GCSE biology here - were fluids move accross mebranes in both directions to maintain balance .

 

So now- histamine has made our blood vessels porus allowing protiens and fluid out of the blood into the space between the tissues. This is called 3rd spacing and leads to 2 things

 

1) Swelling of these tissues affecting the function of organs

-Bowel

-Skin

-Lungs

-pelvic organs -pressing on nerves

 

2) the fluid can't return so there is less circulting fluid in the blood . This makes the body do several things

A) make the heart beat fast to get the lesser volume to the lungs to get oxygen and to the tissues

B) Makes the body put blood pressure up for a short time . This pushes all the blood in the edges( periperies) into the middle to make sure organs get enough blood .

C) When too much fluid has gone the heart doesnt get enough oxygen so goes slow

D) Blood pressure drops below 90 top figure ,

 

C&D lead to unconciousness and if not treated death - See Anapahylaxis

 

2-4 days later this fluid in the tissues is drained back into the circulation by the lymphatic system- a second fluid system which has nodes were fluid from the tissues collects then is moved back into the bloos. This then goes to the kidneys and the body knows this fluid has been replaced, so passes it as urine

 

Those of us with daily symptoms are losing fluid at a slower rate all the time - so - need to replace fluids so they dont get the serious symptoms .

 

 

http://www.lymphnotes.com/pic.php

This diagram shows the lymph ducts which drain into the blood at various points around the body .

 

So fluid leaves our blood and becomes interstitial fluid-extracellualr fluid - this drains into lumphatic vessels . It is moved along by small contractions or by muscles pressing on them .

 

On itsjourney the fluid passes through lymph nodes (diagram 2) were it is met by many immune cells which it.passes through so any bacteria or cancer cells are found the body initiiates an immune response and deals with it .

 

Also all over the body there are areas of  lymphoid follicles known as the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Which filters lymph in a smsilar manner to lymph nodes

 

It then, via lymph ducts drains back into the blood as shown in diagram 3.

 

The lymphatic system also acts as the transport system for immune cells between the bone marrow were they begin life and to the spleen

 

 

lymph 2 lymph filtering lymph node

On a more personal note ......... Although I felt my symptoms all began July 18th 2008 . In hindsight I now know I had symptoms over several years. Stabbing abdominal pains as a teenager, loss of appietite , funny bad throat feeling and blocked nose that never turned into a cold . Swollen stomach randomly every 6 months. In the year proceding me "getting ill" I had a strange asthma that wasnt quite asthma event, a headache so bad it was thoought it might be a brain bleed, it wasnt, swollen stomach with all the symptoms . When it began properly nothing really made sense and I went round different specilaites as different symptoms emerged . This took me to Decmeber when I had my first recognised biggie-anaphylaxis .  In talking with others I have found siliarities in symptoms and some real contradictions . Like i sit under afan 24/7 but a mast cell freind feels the cold. Its important we dont make comparisons and feel like this cant be us or that one person is iller than another . Just we are a group of people with a group of conditions which involve mast cells so we should expect differences but we have many similarities .

Over these 4 years I have found my symptoms vary in how they present.  I have fast reaction, medium, slow and slow burn. This depends on trigger and amount of trigger encountered.  This is different to how True allergy anaphylaxis presents which is always fast everytime .

 

Fast reactions are 0-100 in terms of symptoms severity in 3 minutes maximum . This is my anaphylaxis

 

Medium - were I have building symptoms for half an hour then go fast into an anaphylaxis

 

Slow were ill have symptoms-stop them with antihistamines but when they wear off 3-6hrs later I go into afull raction

 

and

 

Slow burn - Which is were I have symptoms but they don't become serious but continue for days or weeks

The fact I needed to drink so much to remain feeling well was something I noticed quickly in all of this. I did not undertsnad exactly why. Now I know in the moment - I lose fluid and also histamine - makes my heart beat faster taking more blood to my kidneys which makes me produce more urine -which makes me further dehydrated . Secondly prostoglandins open my blood vessel in my kidneys bringing the maximum amount of blood to be flitered = even more urine= even more dehydrated . These things happen wether I have an epipen or not .

It is known that Anapahylaxis lets albumin out of our blood into our urine , which is protien -which is wouldnt normally do .

This happens in all of us in a full reaction becuase those blood vessels are porus, letting through protiens which they normally wouldn't .

 

In a biggie I feel suddenly so thirsty. i need to drink at least alitre steright to quench the thirst-so my body is good at telling me something is going on . With that litre I take some antihistamines ( see anaphylaxis page ) .

 

Day to day my histamine and prostoglandins are making me pass high volumes of urine and the 3rd spacing is going along more slowly than in a biggie .But I ma still losing fluid .

 

Most days I drink 5litres through the day to maintain my hydration. Signs this is getting low are

- double brething like when your upset

 

-My blood pressure changing quickly when I stand up, making me jiddery inside or my chin shaking to whole body shakes

 

My Blood pressure goes up first=headache and feelinga bit weird-not lightheaded just weird -Then drops within 2 mins .

 

I can drink myself out of this sitaution . If I am sjaking I require an antihistamine as well

 

IF I AM FEELING UNWELL I TAKE MY EPIPEN .This is not an alternative but a way to mange your fluid needs day to day ;-)

 

Separate from the chemicals from mast cells directly

 

Compliment – Your inborn immunity – gets activated and has consequences

 

Alternative pathway

Smooth muscle spasms – digestive tract , bladder , reproduction system , chest wall , Throat

 

Flushing

 

Blood vessels become porus leaking fluid into tissues – note 2l can move before swelling becomes visable .

Activates mast cells

 

Every patient is individual in their symptoms but have similaraties .

Leucotrines

 

Swelling of airways and all over

 

- By increasing  microvascular permeability ( Makes blood vessels leaky allowing fluid out =swelling )

 

Asthma type symptoms

-- mucus secretion in airways.

Enhance growth of human airway epithelial cells,  

Causes contraction of smooth muscle - airways  

 

Also stomach, bowel ,bladder and womb spasms

 

Throat swelling

 

Inflammation all over the body -airways, bowels ,stomach well documented

 

- Fat balance ( 7)

 

Cause shock

 

- platelet activating factor (PAF) induced shock  - see mast cells

 

-  Reduce myocardial contractility and coronary blood flow ( reduced heart contraction strength and blood flow to the heart muscle - putting heart at risk of not having enough blood going to it

 

-  Induce long lasting hypotension ( low Blood pressure

 

-  Stimulate angiogenesis.- The physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels - which is essensial for healing

 

Prostoglandins -PGD2

 

Opens up blood vessels- vasodilation -bringing it close to the surface  and making it so the heart doesnt have to pump as hard - which gives lower blood pressure

Flushing of skin

Airway spasm -wheezing

Headaches ( from blood vessels opening , dilating in an enclosed space )

Smooth muscle spasms - bowel , stomach , throat , bowel , bladder , womb

 

BP drop-from blood vessels opening

 

Anxiety when you don't feel anxious , sometimes pacing. Over time can lead to depression .

Brain receptor histamine effects - receptors 1&4

 

Pins and needles / numbness – parathsesias

– hands ,arms ,feet , to numbness

Nerve pain – neurogenic

 – Hands , feet , abdomen ( stabbing ) – from histamine neurotransmitter role

 

Brain fog - mixed organic brain syndrome

Histamine recptors in the temporal lobe

–  conentration poor ,

-  memory poor,

-  agitation ,from grumpy to rages  

-  word finding problems ,

-  down thoughts

 

Heat centre has type 4 receptors as well as type 1, some some heat can be controlled .

Histamine receptor 2 symptoms - digestive tract - Mouth to bottom

 

Abdominal pain – from swelling bowel , cramps , on left or right side and over liver ( right side under ribs )

 

Bowel swelling - frim the submuclasal layer swelling - angiodeama causing pain , large , hard abdomen

 

Diarrhea -from histamine and serotonin

Sudden for many hrs

 – or loose stools , pencil thin stools and apparent consipation were the bowel swells closed .

 

Urgency and frequency

 

Nausea - feeling sick - from incresed stomach acid (img 3 ) shows how histmine affects histamine type 2 recptors in the stomach wall .

 

Vomiting - from stomach muscle spasms expelling contents upwards. From complete stomach contents to small vomits when throat is restricted

 

GERD -Reflux (acid indigestion /heartburn) -from stoch acid leaking inot the oesphegus causing inflammtion

 

++++++ Too much stomach acid

 

Spasms of - smooth muscles - in waves or singlar spasms - causing pain.

 

Bladder - making you feel like you have an infection when you don't have one - Intersitial cystitis

 

Bowel , stomach ,

 

Womb ,  with or without bleeding

 

Chest wall and restricting narrowing airways and

- giving anxious appearing breathing

 

Night sweats

Short of breath –

begins with not being able to take a deep breath

- From mildly wheezy to a wheeze audible accross the room.

- Due to histamine causing

 

- Muscle constriction around individual airways - closing the space inside  -bronconstariction

- Increased mucous production

- Inflammation

 

-Causing wheezing on breathing out and hyperextended lungs on chest xray

 

- Making breathing rate -Increase so you can't speak a whole sentace between breaths - of 40 - very fast

 

- lungs full of fluid- Pulmonary odeama . From fluid leaking out of the blood vessels into the end point of the lung tubes -alvioli

 

 

 

 

 

 

Histamine makes bloods vessel leaky

Fluid leaks out = swelling-angiodeama internal (as well as skin )

 

Dizzy - At rest or on movement ( pre syncope ) is because there is too little fluid left circulating. ( see 3rd spacing below )

 

Your body compensates with high BP for a short time

 

Then - BP drop  -  feels like light headed, spinning or passing out .

 

Fast heart – like your heart banging out of your chest in response to the low blood pressure to get the blood around quickly

 

Also histamine working directly on the heart making it beat faster

 

The histamine is produced there and travels there in the blood  .

 

Img 1 - shows vasodilation -relaxing of blood vessel walls and  incresaed vascualr permability = spaces open for big cells -protiens to get through - water, blood cells which are looking for bugs to rid the body of , alubulmin -protien .

 

Img 2

Swelling - Angiodeama - arises from fluid moving into tissues – by blood vessels being made Porous allowing fluid to move -

- 2l can move before you can see it

- can be anywere internal or external

- can be just on one side of the face or body

Histamine has 4 receptors (see "Subpage"). There are medications to block 2.

Histamine receptor, type 1, affects:   receptors in skin, lungs, bladder, womb, eyes, ears, heart, blood vessels, nervous system, brain, and brain linings.

 

Itching:  Because histamine irritates nerve endings

 

Skin writing:  dermatographia

 

Urticaria:  Hives /Wheal - big red lump with a red area around it or raised area

 

Burning rashes:  akin to instant sunburn/ nettle rash

 

Flushing:  Red skin, typically on face neck and torso;

this is DRY (not pouring with sweat)

until BP goes low:  shock, then

cold clammy sweating.

 

Swelling:  angioedema

 

Palor:  White

The defining features of Angiodeama and Urticaria

Symptoms and signs of angioedema may vary slightly between the different types of angioedema

Heriditory, autoimmune or histamine based, but in general, some or all of the following occur:

 

 Marked swelling, usually around the eyes and mouth

 Throat, tongue, hands, feet and/or genitals may be affected too

 Skin may appear normal, i.e. no hives or other rash

 Swellings may or may not be itchy

 Swellings may be painful, tender or burning

 In severe angioedema, swelling of the throat and/or tongue

        may make it difficult to breathe

 Swelling of the lining of the intestinal tracts may cause

        gastrointestinal pain and cramps

 

Adapated from : Kaplan AP, Greaves MW. (see "Doctors' details")  Angioedema. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;53:373-88.

Circulation effects

pulmonary odeama

So  with histamine being constantly released from mast cells by triggers -These things are happening at a low to a serious level -

Then

You want to walk and move about - so you have faster heart as it works harder to help you breathe well .

This is were the medications come in

Bone pain

 

Deep inside the bones described as burning . The exact cause is unknown. But is felt to be due to mast cells replacing osteocytes-bone cells . This pain is expereinced in all mast cell patients .research is currently ongoing . Mast cells begin their life in bone marrow .

 

Common in long bones and joints .

Also in ribs  -which is painful on breathing

Jaw

partial causes in head pain

can be in any joint bone

 

also inflammation of cartilage -observed in many patients as intercostal pain-in between ribs . In mast cell ribs also have a honeycomb appearance

 

Joints also have mast cells -The histamine causes-inflammation and swelling .

 

Can be very very painful

Over heating - which feels like burning inside your body . In tissues and in the blood . Sometimes accompanied with redness and swelling or without

 

This happens for several reasons -

Histamine works on the heat centre in the brain- In the temporal lobe

 

TNFa resets the temperture point in the hypothalamus .(In the brain )

2 other cytokines are pyrogenic-causing tempertures

 

This is noticable very quickly

- when out of cool air. and/or

- ambient temperture is over 20oc

 

Poor cold tolerence -especially if temperture changes suddenly

hoarseness_image

Upper airway symptoms

Intolernece of smells - leading to vomiting

Histamine causes -

Increased mucous production

Swelling in enclosed spaces ( nose sinus' , mouth and throat

Leading to

Pain from swelling pressing on nerves

Throat close – from swelling inside the throat tissues

From it feeling tight ,

Voice dropping low (Video 2 )

To coughing a bit to cloughing a lot

 

To completely closed ( leading to not breathing , collapse ( anaphylaxis symptom )

 

Stridor - press link button for example

Eyes have mast cells on the surface - on the conjunivita . Releasing histamine

 

causing –

Dry eyes

Itching and  ,

inflammation- redness ,swelling and soreness

 

Angiodeama can swell the tissue surrounding the eyes -

eyes closed

From histamine from eye mast cells

 

-spasms of eye lids and eye muscles can occur . because the eye muscles have histamine recptors

Ringing ears - Tinitus either constant or varying , is a Sign of high overall inflammation.

-swelling pressing on nerves

-Histamines  causing irirtaion and pain in nerves

 

The eustation tube is connected to the throat -so itching ears are connected with viocebox ( larnageal swelling

 

Swelling ( angiodeama) and red outer ears are common . This can be one side only( asymetrical ) ,which is more common ,  speading accross the face or symetrical .

3204_344_497-ciliary-muscle-and-lens getimage (1)

Sleep and wakefulness 

 

Central nervous system -modulate circadian cycle

 

When histamine itself binds to H1 receptors, it activates a G-protein-linked second messenger system that activates phosphatidylinositol and the transcription factor cFOS, resulting in wakefulness, normal alertness, and pro-cognitive actions.1,5,19-21

 

Histamine neurons control  sleep

 

Histamine H1 receptors are activated by endogenous histamine, which is released by neurons that have their cell bodies in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus.

 

Become active (Highest ) In wake cycle (2HZ)

slow wave sleep (0.5)-Stages 3-4

REM sleep -No firing

 

When hisatmine attches to h1 recptors in the cortex -increasing the exictory volatage -produced by a excitory( stulating nerve to fire -releasing histamine ) current .

 

 H1 blockers cause drowsiness by opposing this action

 

So in mast cell with all the extra histamine- The nerves h1 receptors will be constantly stimulated - leading to wakefulness at night . Also no rem sleep

Tryptase

High cholesterol

 

Tryptase stops HDL the good cholesterol soaking up bad cholesterol on cell membranes . making cholesterol high .

 

It is also involved in insulin resistance as is TNF@ which leads to high carbohydrate cholesterol -Triglycerides and makes type 2 diabetes more likley .

 

High LDL leads to build up of fats in the artery walls . mast cell tryptase is involved to breaking the caps of these buildups -which causes heart attacks (MI ) .This happens over many years

 

High cholesterol without other known causes  should have mast cell conditions considered as the cause (                            )

Fatigue is an inadequate term-exhaustion on every level-physical, mental and emotional is better.

 

Most pts need to sleep for 14hrs aday with naps on top . This can be constant and/ or sudden leading to making even holding you head up impossible . Arms unable to hold even a mobile phone, shaking, dropping things .

 

The cause seems to be due to many factors - the bodys level of work , poor sleep, pain, swelling, breathing difficlaties. be awoken by a 2am histamine release .

 

Many report sudden fatigue in response to triggers.

Fatigue

symptoms new site

Mouth symptoms can be "geographic tounge " sore with patches .Mouth ulcersseemingly from no where. Bleeding gums ,geberal mouth swelling and swelling of tounge, inside cheeks, uvula and back of throat .

 

Gums contain many mast cells so brushing teeth or eating crunchy foods can bring bleeding ( from heparin ) swelling and systemic flushing .

 

Mouth symptoms can also reflect symptoms through the digestive tract -as its the "same skin" .It is well documanted that mouth ulcers are present in inflammatory bowel disease. The mast cell contents cause inflammation in the mouth and through the digestive system -in mast cell -in the absance of bacteria or virus'

 

Oral thrush is common . See treatments

Mouth Symptoms

Heparin

Heparin

blood thinner so leads to bleeds

- Nose,

- womb - patieche , between cycle bleeds should ALWAYS be investigated

- bowel - Bowel bleeding shouls ALWAYS be investigated  

 

Oesteoprosis- High heparin we conclude that heparin decreases trabecularbone volume both by decreasing the rate of bone formation and increasing the rate of bone resorption.

 

Add in the effects of IL6 and TNFalpha and heparin receptor 3 release of clacium from cells and poor absrbtion of vitamin d and clacium from the digestive tract-all accumaltes to making osteoprosis a known side effect of mast cell disease a real issue .

 

EVERY mast cell patient should have base line Bone density scan

 

Bone density scan in diagnosos of osteoprosis . Bone density is measured by an extrenal scan which is painless. The information is processed according to age and gender and results come back for hips and spine .

 

Its its important to get a baseline as soon as possible even in skin only mastocytosis as these patients often have this neglected and they are then not on treatments to reduce bone loss and clacium and vitamin d supplements

 

bradykinin

Heparin from mast cells becomes Bradykinin -which causes low blood pressure (hypotension )and swelling ( (o)edeama ) . Also t cells being attracted and adhering causing more immune system actions .

 

Bradykinin also activates Phospholipidase A2

bradykinin prostoglandins

Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) EC 3.1.1.4 are enzymes that release fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol. This particular phospholipase specifically recognizes the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids and catalytically hydrolyzes the bond releasing arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. Upon downstream modification by cyclooxygenases, arachidonic acid is modified into active compounds called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids include prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are categorized as inflammatory mediators.[1]

Serotonin has several roles and effects in the body

- Regulation of bowel movements by incresing smooth muscle   tone .

Higher =hungrier

- Regulates insulin and growth factor release - so suppresses insulin release from the pancreas

- Breathing rate (more=higher rate )

- heart rate (more = higher rate )

-Constricts blood vessels -vasoconstriction which means the heart has to pump harder (increased cardiac output ) this increases blood pressure

- a neurotransmitter

- activates cells ( with recptors )

- upregulates any mood - anxiety , depression, happy , angry - making it more intense .

- Controls sleep

- Pain

- memory

- learning

 

- has role in building and degerating bone

 

-In plateletts - heomostatis and clotting

 

High levels lead to serotonin syndrome -see images

 

Mangement in image -

 

Low-depression -Note mast cells can have low serotonin with no depression -see big change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low serotonin - is not common in mast cell patients . Those who do may or my not have a clinical depression .

 

 

 

 

 

See Medicines -depression and anxiety for treatments within a mast cell context and Big chnage for the many factors which impact your life in mast cell .

 

 

Serotonin

histamine and sleepiness images (12) sleepcycle sleep waves 542325_402229323162796_1150818650_n

Sleepiness with antihistamine medications

The sedative effects of antihistamines is worst if you take them -then engage in a cognitive activity -Maths, spelling, driving.

 

This effect had been reported to me by mums of mast cell children .

 

The picture above shows decreased areas of activity in the areas of the brann were cognitive  processing occurs following antihistamines and a cognitive activity.

 

Many mast cell patients don't expereince drowsiness at all with "drowsy" antihistamines . Day or night

 

Suggesting that the brain histamine recptors are not completely saturated due to high histamine levels .

 

This benefits patients in symptoms being controlled without daytime drowsiness with the antihistamines which cross the blood brain barrier - hydroxyzine , chlorphenamine mealate and

diphenhydramine.

 

Research continues

Goldfish-1-

Brain fog ......................The reality

Its like being a goldfish with demetia also feeling spearated from everything around you

 

I call it monosyabllic moron mode - I can't think of asimple word that I use everyday ..................... soon after ill begin flushing

 

It can also make me very confussed. Not understanding converstaions .I can get grumpy to full on angry . if I hang up the phone on someone within 2 minutes more symptoms will come .

 

Before meds controlled it . I couldn't concerntrate on anything and its like thinking thorugh a fog .

 

If im building up to areaction my concentration will go. My classic is pickinga tv channel then forgetting what I picked because its still in the ads ( within a minute ) or 30 seconds into the ad break forgetting what I have been watching.

 

I have begun repeating myself in converstaions , after about 2 hrs, so not too bad yet, but its noticable .

 

My longterm memory is intact

 

Brain fog is a symptom of a number of conditions .

REM -rapid eye movement sleep is the rejuvinating sleep. Without it the person will wake exhuasted .

 

One of the hallmarks of rem sleep is parlysis - laying completely still .This allows the muscles to rejuvenate and process toxins  allowing full function on waking. So no REM sleep leads to physical exhastion akin to running a marathon over time .

 

Nightime waking is seen in mast cell pts due to other chemical also disrupting rem sleep .

 

Alongside histamine, leucotrines ,  Il1 and tnfalpha also disrupt rem sleep

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaPo0r37wEc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0ORhV9J5xU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ME979bUD1J8 histamine 2

Bowel swelling and inflammation

 

The submucosal layer of the bowel swells with fluid leaking from the blood vessels .

 

This leads to stools being thin or the bowel closing completely .

 

Inflammation -causes redness and damage to the bowel lining . Further reducing the size of the inside of the bowel .This can lead to mucous stools .

Stools can also be yellow . If stools are green then infections should be suspected.

Histamine Receptor 2

Stomach acid level - Stomach acid level is normally controlled by neurotransmitters -which stimulate goblet cells to produce gastrin -which tells entrocromaffin type cells to make histamine - which tell the acid producing cells to make acid.

We have too much histamine -Why ?

We have mast cells in the stomach wall

Somastatain -which is produced from d cells in the stomach wall is a  known mast cell activator .

We also know stress - in particular substance p and CRH also cause mast cells to spill contents

 

Histamine which we know is a chemical constantly released .

We can also have high gastrin - which stimaultes the entrocromaffin like cells to produce histamine .

 

It is high because mast cell histamine also stimulates production of gastrin.

Gastrin affect enrocrommafin type cells and acid producing cells directly .

High acid leads to heart burn , reflux -gastro osphegeal reflux -which burns the oesphegus .

 

At also causes nausea which can be constant and like glass in your stomach

 

Symptom and mast cell chemical involved

Histamine Receptor 1 - Airways symptoms

asthma

Muscle tightening

 

More mucous and Inflammation prevent air reaching the alveoli were gas exchange happens .

 

Gas exchange - in the avioli

 

The gasses in the air-oxygen, carbon dioxide , nitrogen etc move into and out of the air sacs into/out of the blood.This allows oxygen to move into the blood and for carbon dioxide to move out and be expelled when breathing out

 

These factors = low oxygen levels in the blood .

 

Organs can cope for ashort time without oxygen -except the brain which needs it for all functions .

 

This leads to the symptoms -

Breathing faster

wheezing

going vauge / loss of conciousness

 

Muscle spasm -of smooth muscles

 

The bowel has smooth muscles .This spasm /cramp causes diarrhoea and variable stools-pencil thin ( due to swelling )  .The staomch also has smooth muscles -leading to vomiting .

 

Womb - spasms are also coupled with bleeding -called peteichie

 

ANY bleeding should be investigated.

Leucotrines

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mast cell contents Mastocytosis oral im http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5LjLFrmKTSA&feature=related http://www.visiblebody.com/circulatory_multiplatform?gclid=CLWIkIyRvbECFU6JfAodW0oA2g http://www.visiblebody.com/digestive_overview

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Histamine

angioedema1 burning rashes dermatographism hivest Photo-0046 Photo-0146 Photo-0221

Uritciarias can be acute or chronic - below 6 weeks duration is seen as actute longer is chronic .

20% of the pouplation worldwide have a uritcaria in thier lifetime . 1% have chrnic urticaria of some kind ( Greaves 2007) . For more details on these see the mast cell conditions page .

 

In real terms these are hives or rashes from in one location to body wide .

 

These have certain features -

- they are on the skin surface - in the dermis and epidermis

- They cause redness , itching and sweling .

- They can occur due to heat , cold, vibrtaion -physical

- Pressure  -from simple things like clothing ,holding bags

- Stress -CRH  & emotional times  - cholinergic - due to acetylcholine release affecting mast cells

- Autoimmune -  15-17 % have thyriod antibodies -with or without active thyriod disease ( Greaves etal 2007 )

or unknown - and after testing idiopathic

Urticarias

heartvessel hist

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300px-Anatomy_of_the_Human_Ear.svg

Headaches -up to migraines inc occular migraines are histamine driven .

 

Stress is proven to cuase migraines . Its hormone crh and uroocrtine both activae mast cells in the brain linings -dura .

The chemicals relased make the blood vessels leaky as we know of elsewere .

This breaks what is called the blood brain barrier . Tnf alpha is heavily involved in this .

This leads to a number of effects inc increased mast cells traveling into the brain .

 

This alongside fluid moving into the tissues and blood vessels opening ( prostoglandins ) and bone pain makes for chalenging migraines .

 

There are also recnt reports of connections being made between these mechnaisms and brain inflammtion called encephelitis . I will come back with more details x

Other head symptoms

histamine pic