Secondary chemicals

Here I discuss the chemical processes which mast cell chemicals activate.

The Effects of Histamine in the Adrenal Medulla and on Nerves of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Histamine works on the histamine 1 receptor in the adrenal medellla .


The arenal glands are at the top of the kidneys .the centre -medulla -excreete- epipeneherine and nor epinpeherine .


These are known as cateclamines and have varying effects around the body .

Adrenals_000 Hormones passed by adrenal gland know_your_glands_your_adrenals_article

                                 The adrenals are protected by the rib cage.


                          They have recpetors for histamine .there are 4 receptors in total-on adrneals we find H1 and h3


The histamine 1 receptors work in the medulla,

   producing epinepherine and norepinepherine.


So medictions blocking the histamine 1 receptor prevent histamine cuasing relase of epinpeherine and norepinpeherine .

Epinpeherine - increases biological functions -

Increases blood pressure

Increases pulse

Increases muscle spasm -causing contraction of muscles inc heart , blood vessels , lung linings ,

Increases strength of heart contractions .


Nor epinpeherine - Lowers -

Lowers blood pressure

Lowers pluse

Lowers muscle tone - allowing blood vessels to be relaxed

The Sympathetic nervous system and parasymapthetic - form part of the autonomic nervous system .


So the actions of epinpeherine - adrenaline (the same )


Nor epinpeherine - Nor epinpeherine

Have effects on the automatic control of our core body functions -

BP-Blood pressure




Blood pressure - Explained -


Blood pressure is made up of 2 numbers .


The first the systolic and the second is the diastolic


This is the pressure that the heart is pumping out blood from the left ventrcle - at the beginning of the heart beat


The diastolic is the pressure the blood is being pumped out at the end of the heart beat .


Why is this important -This is important becuase below a certain level the blood isnt pumped hard enough to get to the organs / muscles/ bones - were its oxygen is needed to produce energy for cell function and carbon dioxide needs to be removed .


If its too high -over time it  causes dmaage to blood vessels , the heart gets damaged -gets big and flabby so cnat pump properly .The damage in the blood vessels leads to a rough surface for cholesterol to collect causing narrowing of the vessels , bulges in vessels -called anuersyms .


So what is normal - or safe blood pressure ?


The top figure systolic must be over 90 for organs to get enough blood to meet its needs - to allow it to function .


The brain can not make energy without oxygen - others can for a short period - so systolic below 90 is dnagerous for all organs .


High -Top figure over 150 is seen as high and will cuase damage over time .

over 170 there is high rick of a vessel breaking splilling blood and